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AN ILL USTRATED MAGAZINE 

PUBLISHED AT BALTIMORE. MD.. AND WASHINGTON. D. C. BY 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

< Title Rrg. U. S. Patent Office) 
ALSO THE ORGAN OF THE COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 



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VOL. II, No. 3 



NOVEMBER, 1915 



CONTENTS 



Ancient America at the Panama-California Exposition. 

BY EDGAR L. HEWETT 

Introduction BYW.H. HOLMES 

I 
Spanish Renaissance Architecture: The California Quadrangle 

II 

Aboriginal American Art and Culture 

III 

A. The Vestibule: The Farnham Historical Frieze 

IV 

B. The Rotunda: Replicas of Central American Monuments 

V 
C. The Balconies: The Vierra Frescoes of Ancient Cities of America 

VI 

Sculptured Frieze of Ancient American Life 

VII 

Other Replicas and Reconstructions 

Current Notes and News 



TWO DOLLARS A YEAR 



SPECIAL PRICE 
SAN DIEGO NUMBER, 25 CENTS 



Entered a* iccond-clui matter Sept. 8. 1914. at the poit office al Baltimore. Md.. under the Act ot Auguii 24. 1912. 
Copyright. 1915. by the Archaeological Institute of America 



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UlililH 



The ILLUSTRATED 

MAGAZINE 
ART and 
ARCHAEOLOGY 




WON \ 

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PRiO 



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The Editorial Staff of ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY is as follows: 

General Editor: David Moore Robinson, Johns Hopkins University. 

Art Editor: William H. Holmes, Smithsonian Institution. 

Managing Editor: Mitchell Carroll, General Secretary, Archaeological Institute of America. 

Associate Editor: Ralph Van Deman Magoffin, Johns Hopkins University. 

Contributing Editors: H. Rushtou Fairclough, Stanford University; Charles H. Weller, University of 
Iowa; Albert T. Clay, Yale University; Frederick W. Hodge, Smithsonian Institution; Charles 
T. Currelly, Royal Ontario Museum; George H Edgell, Harvard University; Frank B. Tarbell, 
University of Chicago, representing the College Art Association of America. 

BOARD OF PUBLICATION 

F. W. Shipley, ex-officio as President of the Institute 
Allan Marquand, William H. Holmes, David M. Robinson 
Mitchell Carroll, ex-officio as General Secretary 

Subscription per annum, $2.00. Single numbers, 35 cents. 

Subscriptions and advertisements may be sent to THE WAVERLY PRESS, Baltimore, Md.; 01 the 
General Secretary, office of the, Archaeological Institute of America, Washington. D. C Contributions 
may be addressed to David M. Robinson, General Editor, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Other editorial correspondence should be addressed to ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY, The Octagon, 
Washington, D. C. 

Issued ebery other month 
THE JANUARY NUMBER OF 

ART and ARCHAEOLOGY 

WILL CONTAIN THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES, ELABORATELY ILLUSTRATED: 

CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC 

EXPOSITION, SAN FRANCISCO 

By H. Rushton Fairclough 

THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD 

I. THE PYRAMIDS, By Edgar J. Banks 

MASTERPIECES OF ABORIGINAL AMERICAN ART 

IV. SCULPTURE, By William H. Holmes 

CHINESE AND JAPANESE SCULPTURE AND PAINTING. I 

By Garrett Chatfield Pier 

LESSER KNOWN MASTERPIECES OF ITALIAN PAINTING. IV 

By Dan Fellows Piatt 
SAMPLE COPY ON REQUEST 






rfmn Diego' Dream Citp 

CIjc (Exposition locattb in tfje harbor of tfje £s>un 

£brce prars ago in the heart of the cup of &an 23irgo, tbe 
southernmost of HAntlt jfeam's pacific ports, there tons a four 
trctHjunbreb acre tract of lanb on ujfjich ttjere tuas not a single 
builbing. ilcitfjcr toas there muclj in tbe ruap of foliage. Jfor 
longer than ttjr mrmorp of man that tract of lanb ljab been un 
toucheb hp luatcr, only hp the rare rainfalls luljict) strike the citp 
of the soutJjujest bp the harbor of ttje &un. as a result, tbe 
abobe soil Urns paefceb barb anb Searcb bp tf)c almost constant 
sun 3n the canpons anb on the mesa tfjerc grrto nothing satoc 
cactus anb sagebrush anb cljapparal. 

Cljat uias tljree pears ago. Cobap on that mesa stanbs a gorgeous 
citp of olb s>pain, anb tbe lanb about the butlbiugS, cben bofcun 
to the beptljs of the canpons is cobcreb tuitlj a trjicn groiutb of 
semi tropical tuliagr, luttfj loftp trrrs anb sprrabing Shrubs anb 
lolu bushes, through ujIjosc beep green flashes ttje crimson of 
poinscttin, anb the tccoma, anb tlje bright golb of the California 
poppp. Clje magic garben fya* tahrn the place of tfjr bcSrrt. £)e 
mho salu the lanb three pears ago anb sres it again tobap, tuoulb 
ttjinh tljnt some mobern SUabbin jjab come this uiap anb rubbcb 
his lamp, or that a fFIcrlin l;ab uiabcb the magic tuanb anb causeb 
the ZDrraiu (Citp to Spring up. Jt fjas been a sprcics of magic 
but not tbe sort affrrtcb tuitlj tlje Uianb. ^tpleS in magic tjabe 
cijangcb in tbe last frU) centuries, anb the onlp fcuanb Uitjich tbe 
magician of &an JDtrgo uscb is ImoUm more commonlp as a 
spabe, or a trolucl or a garben ijosr. Clje effect Ijotocbcr is as 
tremenbous as the effect of olb time sorccrp. — National 
Magazine. 




FACADE OF THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING, 
PANAMA- CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



VOLUME II 



NOVEMBER 1915 



NUMBER 3 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA 

EXPOSITION 

EDGAR L, HEWETT 
INTRODUCTION 



TO ONE who has had familiar 
acquaintance with nearly all the 
American expositions, beginning with 
the Centennial, 1876, it is a great- 
privilege to have been able to take 
part in this wonderful creation at San 
Diego — an exposition distinct from all 
its predecessors, historically, artistically, 
and scientifically. Conceived by local 
genius and executed with the assist- 
ance of specially qualified collaborators, 
in each department it forms a splendid 
setting for the celebration of the Isthmian 
wedding of the Atlantic and the Pacific. 
San Diego was selected as an appropriate 
city for the celebration, since it is the 
American port nearest the western gate 
of the Canal and besides has a senti- 
mental claim in the fact that its port 
was the first north of Mexico to be en- 
tered by a European ship. Cabrillo, 
after rounding Cape Horn, explored the 
western coast and cast anchor in the 
broad bay behind Point Loma in 1542. 
The reason why this Exposition appeals 
with such overpowering force to the 
imagination of the visitor may not at 
once be apparent. It is not stupendous 
as the international expositions, but an 
achievement far removed from these 
and possible only in the far Southwest. 
Should one venture to explain the fas- 
cination almost certainly felt by the 
imaginative visitor, he will think first 



of the superb site with its deep verdant 
valleys, of the many-arched Cabrillo 
Bridge which leads over a profound 
gorge to the splendid Ocean Gate; of 
the songs of many unseen birds echoing 
back and forth from the embowered 
slopes; of the domes and many-storied 
towers which rise beyond — dreams of 
grace and embodiments of permanency 
and strength; of the long arcades 
wreathed in ever-blooming vines through 
which one finds his way; of the shady 
and deeply secluded paths from which 
glimpses are had of + he distant blue sea. 
All of these and more conspire with the 
soft sunlight and the sweet-scented air 
to dreams of Arc adv. Is this then not 
all a dream! It was December at San 
Diego and the whole East was in the 
clutches of a fierce zero winter. 

The charm of this Exposition is, how- 
ever, not confined to its superficial 
features, for aesthetic attention has been 
extended equally to the interiors in many 
ways; but the serious side of human 
affairs, the arts and industries, history, 
science, and education are here given 
exceptional attention, the central idea 
being the history of man and more 
especially man in the early stages of his 
development. For the first time in the 
history of expositions the story of the 
physical man is made a chief attraction, 
and native American culture is presented 

65 



66 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



in a manner more illumining than ever science, are destined to serve a great 

before. purpose as the nucleus of a permanent 

Aside from the great group of exhibits museum in San Diego. The readers 

brought together by Doctor Hewett in of Art and Archaeology will keenly 

illustration of the highest achievements appreciate the fact that this splendid 

of aboriginal America — the work of the result must be placed largely to the 

Maya race — the Exposition embodies credit of the Archaeological Institute 




FIG- I PREHISTORIC INDUSTRIES: SOAPSTONE MIXING AND POT MAKING iSee p. 103) 



under his special department numerous of America, and more especially to the 
exhibits of great historic and scientific credit of the School of American Archae- 
interest, reference to some of which will ology, through the enterprise of its 
be made later in these pages. able director, Dr. E. L. Hewett, and 
These exhibits as a whole, which have the enlightened support of Col. D. C. 
been the recipients of interested attcn- Collier, first president of the Exposi- 
tion on the part of the public and of tion. 
unstinted praise on the part of men of W. H. Holmes. 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 67 

I 

SPANISH RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE: THE CALIFORNIA 

QUADRANGLE 

^CONSIDERATION of the exhibit in the interpretation of what they saw. 
V^ of Ancient America is inseparable Yet, as the science of archaeology brings 
from that of the California Building to light the remains of the ancient Ameri- 
in which it is housed. No one can can world, we must admit that the en- 
view this noble structure, built in im- thusiasm of the Spaniards was not with- 
perishable concrete, without a feeling out justification. The brilliancy of the 
of profound obligation to the architect, new race suggested another Orient. 
Mr. Bertram G. Goodhue, and his able The ruins of Central American cities 
assistant Mr. Carleton M. Winslow, seemed to entomb another Egypt, 
under whose personal supervision it In the absorption of building a great 
was constructed. The California Quad- English-speaking nation, we have lost 
rangle furnished the artistic keynote to sight of the part played by Spain in 
the Panama-California Exposition. It American history, likewise of the great 
established a plane of lofty idealism w T orks of the native American race which 
for the Fair and for the future great w r e know in its decadence. The object 
city of San Diego. It will be the imper- of the exhibit of Ancient America is to 
ishable monument of the year 1915. present a picture of the Golden Age of 
It did not seem appropriate that the that race — a chapter of human history 
Quadrangle should be devoted to transi- that is as worthy of study as are the 
tory uses, such as displays of state re- records of its contemporaries of the Old 
sources, so well done in the various World, 

buildings of the California counties. The California Quadrangle (figs. 2, 3, 7) 
It afforded an opportunity for perpetual comprises the buildings surrounding 
benefit to the public. Its architecture, the Plaza de California, a paved square 
a rich inheritance from the past, particu- which is entered at the east end of the 
larly from old Spain and Mexico, sug- Puente de Cabrillo (Cabrillo Bridge) 
gested the idea of devoting it to that through the most imposing arch of the 
which Europeans saw when they first Exposition (fig. 4). This has been named 
looked upon the New World. the Ocean Gate, for the double reason 

It seemed especially fitting that the that it faces the sea, lying to the west 
California Building should enshrine the of the city, and that in its sculptured 
memorials of the race that ran its course motive it represents symbolically the 
in America before the continent was seen union of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 
by Europeans. The native American by the completion of the Panama Canal, 
civilization so impressed the Spanish the event which the San Diego Exposi- 
conquerors when they first saw the shores tion w^as designed to celebrate. The 
of Mexico and Central America, that reclining figure on the left represents 
they carried back to the Old World the Atlantic, that upon the right the 
glowing accounts of rich empires, opu- Pacific. The waters of the two seas 
lent cities, and powerful monarchs. W T e are being mingled. Between is seen the 
now know that they made many mistakes great seal of the city of San Diego. 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 69 



The effect of the gate as it is approached 
by way of Cabrillo Bridge is that of a 
rich and dignified entrance to a walled 
Spanish city. 

The entrance to the Quadrangle from 
the east is by way of the Prado Gate, 
less pretentious and yet of strong archi- 
tectural value. A minor entrance is 
under the arcade at the northeast corner 
by way of the Garden Gate which opens 
from the Plaza into the gardens to the 
north and east of the Quadrangle. It 
is one of the best of all the gates and 
doorways of the entire Exposition group. 

The south side is occupied by the 
Fine Arts Building. It is in plain Cali- 
fornia Mission style. In front are to 
be seen the massive arched port ales which 
are extended on the east and west sides 
to meet the wings of the California Build- 
ing. The portales are roofed with vigas 
(wooden logs) in the early Mission style 
of New Mexico and California. 

The Quadrangle contains numerous 
architectural details that will interest 
both layman and architect. The door- 
ways at the entrances of the President's 
rooms, the room of the California State 
Commission, the office of the Director of 
the Exhibits in the Quadrangle, and the 
doors of the Fine Arts Building are 
worthy of notice. 

The north side is occupied by the Cali- 
fornia State Building. It is the dominant 
architectural feature of the Exposition, 
and to be fully appreciated must be 
studied from many points of view. One 
of the most impressive is that from under 
the portales of the Fine Arts Building. 
This view is particularly for close study 
of architectural details. A point of espe- 
cial interest is from the balconies of 
the New Mexico Building, from which 
the full value of the tower and dome 
is appreciated. For certain historic fea- 



tures of the architecture no place is 
better than from the gardens northeast 
of the building. From here the arrange- 
ment of small domes is best seen. For 
the architectural relation of the Quad- 
rangle to the Administration, Fine Arts, 
and adjacent buildings on the Prado, 
one should study the illustration first 
presented (fig. 2). 

The California Building is a fine ex- 
ample of Spanish Renaissance archi- 
tecture. The style is that of the eight- 
eenth century cathedrals of Mexico 
and Central America. For its more 
remote genealogy one must go back to 
Spain, Italy, and the Moorish lands. 

Every lover of art will be interested 
in working out the archaeology of this 
magnificent building. Aids to this pur- 
pose are afforded in a room in the Fine 
Arts Building devoted to the architecture 
of the Exposition. Masterpieces of ec- 
clesiastical architecture of the last four- 
teen centuries have furnished elements 
of utility and beauty, which are marvel- 
ously combined. For the immediate 
progenitor of the dome see that of Taxco. 
most beautiful of all the churches of Old 
Mexico. For its remote ancestry we 
go back to the Duomo in Florence. The 
cluster of domes recalls St. Mark's in 
Venice and Santa Sophia in Constanti- 
nople. The use of inscriptions about the 
base is common in Spanish churches. 
The legend at the base of the California 
dome, beautifully expressive of the Gold- 
en State, reads: 

Terrain frumenti hordei ac vine- 
arum in qva ficus et malogranata 
et oliveta nascuntur terrain olei 
ac mellis." 

[Deuteronomy 8:8. "A land of 
wheat and barley, and vines and 
fig trees and pomegranates ; a land 
of olive-trees and honey."] 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 71 



Prototypes of the tower are numerous 
in Spain, as for example in Cordova and 
Seville. A strikingly beautiful effect is 
obtained by the concentration of orna- 
ment at the summit of the tower and in 
the center of the facade, in the sudden 
relief of a large expanse of bare wall 
with luxuriance of decoration. The em- 
bellishment of tower and dome with 
tile in brilliant colors is a fine Oriental 
touch, which it is hoped will be exten- 
sively used in Southern California. 

The main facade will repay careful 
study ( front ispiece ) . The best place from 
which to see this is from under the por- 
tales on the south side of the Plaza. It 
has been said of this facade, "There is 
no finer Spanish Renaissance facade in 
existence." 1 Statues of noted characters 
connected with the history of San Diego 
have been placed in the niches. At the 
top, in the place of honor, stands Fray 
Junipe.ro Serra, of the order of St. Francis, 
Father-Presidcntc of the missions in 
both Alta and Raja California, who 
arrived at San Diego in 1769. Im- 
mediately below, at the right as you face 
the building, is the statue of the Portu- 
guese navigator, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, 
who discovered the Bay of San Diego 

1 The Panama-California Exposition and the 
changing civilization of the great Southwest, 
by William Tcmpleton Johnson. The Surrey, 
July 3, 1915. 



in 1542. Above Cabrillo is the bust 
of his patron, the Emperor Charles V 
of Spain. At the left is the statue of 
Don Sabastian Viscaino, who sailed into 
San Diego Bay on the tenth of 
November, 1602. Above Viscaino is 
the bust of his patron, Philip III of 
Spain. 

Relow Cabrillo is the bust of Don 
Caspar de Port-old, first Spanish governor 
of Southern California. Below Viscaino 
is that of Ceorge Vancouver, the English 
navigator who sailed into the harbor on 
the twenty-seventh of November, 1793, 
and made notes upon the condition of 
the Spanish settlement. 

In the lower niche at the right is the 
statue of Fray Antonio de la Ascension, 
Carmelite historian and prior of the 
little band that accompanied Viscaino. 
At the lower left hand is the statue of 
the Franciscan priest Luis Jaume, who 
accompanied Father Serra. and who 
died at San Diego Mission at the hands 
of the Indians. He may be considered 
the first Christian martyr of California. 

Immediately above Viscaino is the 
coat of arms of Spain, and above Cabrillo 
that of Mexico. The coat of arms of 
the state of California is seen over the 
main doorway, and the shield of the 
United States of America at the top of 
the facade above the statue of Father 
Serra. 



II 
ABORIGINAL AMERICAN ART AND CULTURE 



Inside the California Building will be 
seen the most important works of the 
ancient peoples of Central America. 
They present a picture of an age of 
which Americans generally are not well 
informed, namely, that which preceded 
the coming of the Europeans to the 



western continent. Knowledge of Ameri- 
can history usually begins with the period 
of discovery and conquest, and follows 
down to the present time. Here we 
begin at the usual point and looking 
backward view the history of an Ameri- 
can civilization that reached its zenith 







o 
P 

in 
O 
a- 



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ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 73 



and went down before it was known to 
white men. 

The cities that have long lain buried 
in the tropical jungle have been the sub- 
ject of much misleading romance. Fan- 
tastic theories about these people, their 
Oriental or Egyptian origin, their em- 
pires, kings, queens, and courts, the mys- 
tery of "vanished races" — all this may 
be dismissed. There is nothing mysteri- 
ous about it. The ancient temple build- 
ers of Central America were Indians. All 
the characteristics of the race are seen 
in these ancient monuments. Like other 
races they slowly struggled up through 
a long period of evolution, matured, for 
a time expressed their mental and 
spiritual power in great works, ran their 
course and died, as is inevitable with 
individuals and races when they grow 
old. 

It would be misleading to pretend that 
any connected history of the Central 
American cities could be written at this 
time. Their records, in the form of 
hieroglyphic inscriptions, are a sealed 
book, except as they relate to notation 
and chronology. None of the charac- 
ters used in the writings of the Mayas 
bear any resemblance to those of the 
Egyptians or any other ancient people. 
All reports to the effect that Orientals 
have been able to interpret the symbols 
of the Central American monuments, 
or understand the language of the native 
people, may be put down as false. 

For the study of the hieroglyphic 
writings we must depend mainly on 
the inscriptions carved in stone. These, 
found on monuments, walls, tablets, 
and lintels, have survived the ruin of 
ages. Sacred books, or codices, were 
once numerous, but now only three are 
known to exist. Large numbers of them 
were destroyed at the time of the Spanish 



conquest of Yucatan on account of their 
supposedly pagan character. 

Nothing can be set down as final with 
reference to the date of any Central 
American city in terms of the Christian 
calendar. In the subject of Maya chron- 
ology there is little agreement among 
students. Certain authorities, who are 
worthy of the highest respect, date the 
Maya cities as early as the twelfth cen- 
tury, B.C. Others place them in the early 
part of the Christian era. The writer 
is disposed to favor the latter view. 

Among the older cities are Copan, 
Quirigua, Tikal, and Palenque; the later 
are Chic hen Itza, Uxmal, and other 
cities of northern Yucatan. When 
America was first seen by Europeans, 
the Central American cities lay in ruins 
in the jungles, as they do now. 

Evidences of a long period prior to 
the setting up of the sculptured monu- 
ments and the inscription of hieroglyphic 
tablets have been found at Quirigua in 
Guatemala. No proof exists to show 
that this civilization was derived from 
Egypt or the Orient. On the contrary, 
it appears certain that during a period of 
many centuries it rose, flourished, and 
declined upon the soil of Central America. 
In this it resembled the Egyptian, which 
ran its entire course in the Valley of the 
Nile. 

It is customary to speak of the people 
of all the Central American cities as the 
Mayas, but that they were all of one 
stock cannot be claimed with certainty. 
It could not be proved that the people 
of Copan and Quirigua in the Motagua 
Valley spoke the same language or that 
they were of the same stock as the people 
of Yucatan or the Usumacinta Valley 
in Mexico. The fact that they used 
the same architectural principles in 
building and the same hieroglyphic 



\ 




ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 75 



symbols is not conclusive of linguistic 
or ethnic identity. In the Rio Grande 
Valley in New Mexico it is not uncommon 
to find two Indian towns less than 
twenty miles apart where the people 
speak entirely different languages, yet 
build their houses and sanctuaries in 
the same way, and use practically the 
same symbolic characters. 

The ancient cities of Central America 
may properly be spoken of as "Temple 
Cities." Among the ruined buildings 
there is little to suggest residential use 
or domestic life. It is probable that the 
ancient people lived much as do those 
of the present time, in houses of bamboo, 
or other light material, thatched with 
palm. This civilization was profoundly 
religious in character, a trait of the entire 
American Indian race. With probably 
no other people known has religious cere- 
mony been so generally intermingled 
with all the activities of life. As the 
condition of society called for nothing 
elaborate in residence building, so also 
political organization was such as to 
require little in the way of public build- 
ings for civic purposes. Monarchy was 
unknown. The government was theo- 
cratic and republican in character. 
There was no splendor of courts and 
no state government to provide for. 

Religious life was highly organized. 
Everything else was subservient. The 
mysteries of the priesthood necessitated 
sanctuaries, shrines, altars, gorgeous ves- 
ture, and representation of gods. Impos- 
ing ceremonies, processions, and rituals 
demanded temples, sacred precincts, and 
facilities for the display of magic power 
with which to awe the populace. The 
building of a city meant the erection of 
temples and statues and their embellish- 
ment with images, inscriptions, and sym- 
bolic decorations. 



The art of the Mayas, the strength 
and beauty of which is illustrated in this 
building, gives a perfect picture of the 
racial mind. In their architecture; paint- 
ing, and sculpture they uttered their 
deepest thoughts concerning life. If 
art is great in proportion as it reveals 
the experiences of life, then this is great 
art. With marvelous order and with 
technique entirely adequate to their 
purposes, the Maya artists tell in their 
sculpture what was of most concern to 
them — tell of human dignity and divine 
power — tell in a way that was perfectly 
naive and honest, of their belief in the 
efficacy of ritual, ceremony, symbolic 
ornamentation, gorgeous vesture in deal- 
ing with divinity — tell of profound vene- 
ration for life and life forces, even though 
enshrined in bird or beast. Man, Na- 
ture, God, Life — here was their realm 
of thought — here was their religion, and 
their art cannot be separated from it. 

The most conspicuous characteristic 
of their art is order. Note this in both 
their architecture and sculpture. We 
do not recognize the work of individual 
artists. Technique was racial in char- 
acter and was adequate for their needs 
of expression, which is the main thing in 
style. It was progressive in its develop- 
ment, and one can readily trace improve- 
ment from age to age. While not an 
infallible guide, yet one finds it possible 
by studying this phase of Maya art alone, 
to determine the order of construction 
of the various monuments in a city, 
just as in modern cities one sees at a 
glance which are the buildings of the 
early days and which belong to later 
and more mature times. 

Of painting there is little surviving 
with the exception of that found on vases. 
Color was used on statues and in the 
buildings, but only a few fragmentary 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 77 

examples remain. In ceramic art there The works relating to Ancient America 

was the same fine sense of order and, that are displayed in the California 

judging from the few authentic specimens Building may best be seen in the order 

we have, the art was well advanced. in which they are here presented. 



Ill 
A. THE VESTIBULE: THE FARNHAM HISTORICAL FRIEZE 



On the wall is to be seen first the histor- 
ical frieze by Mrs. Sally James Farnham, 
the original of which, in bronze, adorns 
the room of the governing board in the 
Building of the Pan-American Union, in 
Washington. With the generous permis- 
sion of this board and the courtesy of Hon. 
John Barrett, Director-General, this rep- 
lica was obtained. It is justly regarded 
as one of the important achievements in 
modern American sculpture (figs. 8, 9). 

1. Right of entrance to the rotunda: 
Landing of Columbus, October 12, 1492. 

2. Left of entrance: Balboa taking 
possession of the Pacific Ocean in the 
name of the King of Spain, September 
1513 (fig. 8). 

3. Right (east) wall: Cortes, Con- 
queror of Mexico, with his army: his 
Indian wife, Marina, at his side, the 
conquered Aztec chief, Montezuma, 
borne in a litter by his warriors. The 
panel at the left of this tablet represents 
Mineral Wealth of Mexico, mined by 
the Indians to enrich the conquering 
Spaniards. The panel at the right end 
represents Agricultural Wealth of Mexico. 
These vertical panels are framed by col- 
umns, the designs of which are taken 
from the sculptured monoliths at Copan 
in Honduras (fig. 9). 

4. Left (west) wall: Pizarro, Con- 
queror of Peru, leading his army to the 
subjugation of the Incas. The panel at 
the left of this tablet represents a llama 
driver of the Andes. The panel at the 
right end represents a vaquero, or cow- 
boy, of the pampas. 



Below the Farnham frieze will be seen 
copies of four remarkable sculptures 
from the sanctuaries at Palenque, one 
of the most important ancient cities of 
Central America. 

1. Right of entrance to the rotunda: 
Figure in bas-relief from the pier on the 
right side of the entrance to the Sanc- 
tuary of the Temple of the Sun at Palen- 
que. In this tablet the face is ghosth T 
in appearance. Comparison with the 
make-up of characters in the drama- 
dances of the North American tribes, 
in which shades of ancestors are imper- 
sonated, leads one to suspect that this 
figure is designed to represent the spirit 
of a deceased person. The garb indicates 
a character which among the Indians of 
our Southwest we would call a medicine- 
man. Note the symbolic head-dress, 
the jaguar mantle thrown over the 
shoulders and hanging down the back; 
also the decorated wrist and ankle bands. 
The straight tube held in the mouth, 
with the smoke or flame which appears to 
issue from it, suggests the ceremonial pipe 
or cloud-blower of the Pueblo Indians. 

2. Left of entrance to the rotunda: 
Figure in bas-relief from pier on left 
side of entrance to the sanctuary above 
mentioned. The vesture is that of 
an Indian priest. Note the elaborate 
plumed head-dress, necklace of beads, 
richly embroidered mantle, sash and 
apron, leggings and sandals. The face 
is that of a living person. Above the 
head and in front of the face are hiero- 
glyphic characters. 




FIG. 7. THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING FROM THE NORTHEAST. 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 79 



3. Right (east) wall: This is the fa- 
mous altar-piece known as the Tablet 
of the Cross. It occupies a wall of the 
Sanctuary in the Temple of the Cross 
and corresponds in many respects with 
the altar-pieces in other temples, such 
as the Temple of the Sun nearby. The 
tablet is of limestone, and the figures 
are sculptured in low relief. The cross 
is here used as an altar, and as in other 
parts of Ancient America, probably 
represents the I 'our World Quarters. 
Perched on the top is the Quetzal, the 
Sacred Bird of Central America. The 
two priestly figures in ceremonial atti- 
tude before the altar are in the act of 
presenting offerings. Remembering cer- 
tain rituals and the significance of the 
cross among northern Indian tribes, this 
suggests a birth ceremony in which 
occurs the Invocation to the Four Winds. 
Columns of hieroglyphic inscriptions 
are seen at the right and left. The entire 
original of this iiltar-piecc may now be 
seen in the National Museum of the City 
of Mexico. One panel of it was, from the 

I year 1842, kept in the city of Washing- 
ton, D. C. As an act of international 
courtesy it was, on the recommendation 
of Secretary of State Elihu Root, after 
his visit to Mexico City in 1900, and 
by action of the Secretary and Regents 
of the Smithsonian Institution, returned 
to the government of Mexico. 

4. Left (west) wall: This is another 
remarkable altar-piece known as the 
Tablet of the Sun Mask. It occupies 
the back wall of the Sanctuary of the 
Temple of the Sun and corresponds 
closely in many respects to panels in the 
other temples. The tablet is of limestone 
and the figures are sculptured in low relief. 
The two priestly figures are in the act 
of making offerings, doubtless, to the 
deity to whom the temple is dedicated. 



Each stands upon the back of a grotesque 
human figure, and between these are two 
other figures of remarkable design, 
clothed in jaguar skins, supporting upon 
their upraised hands, Atlas fashion, a 
massive table upon which is the great 
mask with expanded eyes and protruding 
tongue. Columns of glyphic inscrip- 
tions occur at the right and left, and two 
small inscriptions near the upper margin 
of the tablet. 

On opposite sides of the outer entrance 
to the vestibule will be seen upon the 
walls panels of hieroglyphic inscriptions 
from Palenque (fig. 10). These are the 
halves of what was formerly a single 
hieroglyphic panel. They afford an ex- 
cellent example of the glyph carving in 
which Palenque appears to have sur- 
passed all other Central American cities. 

Above the door, between the vestibule 
and the rotunda, is a Maya inscription 
(fig. 11) arranged in the form of an initial 
series, expressing the date of the opening 
of the California Building to the public, 
that is, January 1, A. D., 1915. The 
difficult problem of correlating a date 
in the Christian calendar with one in 
Maya chronology, expressing it cor- 
rectly, year by year, and day for day in 
Maya hieroglyphic characters, was under- 
taken by Mr. Sylvanus 0. Morley. 
The reading worked out by him and ac- 
cepted as nearly a correct rendering 
as could be offered at the present time 
is Cycle 13, Katun 8, Year 3, Month 
10, Day 13, 6 Ben, 7 Co. Without 
going into a technical explanation of 
Mr. Morley 's reading, it may be stated 
for the benefit of those who have not 
studied Maya chronology, that the date 
here expressed as it might have been 
by an ancient Maya scribe, places the 
construction of this temple in the year 
53G3 of the Mava calendar. 




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IV 
B. THE ROTUNDA: REPLICAS OF CENTRAL AMERICAN MONUMENTS 

1. On passing through the door lead- 
ing from the vestibule to the rotunda, 
everyone should notice the splendid 
columns reproducing the portal of the 
temple which is situated on the top of 
the pyramid, commonly called El Cas- 
tillo, at Chichen Itza, Yucatan. The 
name appears to the writer so unsatis- 
factory that he prefers to designate it 
as the Temple of Sacrifice, for reasons 
which will appear later. These majestic 
columns are here reproduced for the 
first time under the direction of Mr. 
W. H. Holmes. The motive is the 
Plumed Serpent known all the way from 
the United States to Central America, 
and doubtless having throughout the 
same significance. The Avanyu of the 
ancient cliff-dwellers represented the 
major deity of these people; having to 
do with water, springs, streams, rain, 
and consequently with growing crops. 
The bird in Southwestern mythology 
was the emblem of the sky gods, as the 
reptile was of earth deities. In the 
Plumed Serpent we have a representative 
of both. In all probability the Quetzal- 
coatl (quetzal, bird; coath reptile) stood 
for a similar concept of deific power in 
Central America. 

2. In the center of the rotunda (fig. 
11) is a large relief map of Central Ameri- 
ca, made by the School of American 
Archaeology, showing the distribution 
of the ancient Temple Cities. Fifty 
sites are shown on the map. Note es- 
pecially the location of Quirigua, Copan, 
Palenque, Tikal, Uxmal, and Chichen 
Itza, from which cities the various works 
of art and architecture shown in this 
building are derived. Note that these 
cities are mostly in the lowlands, in a 
region that is now extremely unhealth- 
ful for the white race, as well as the 
Indian. In the absence of known causes 







81 



82 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



for the depopulation of Maya cities, one 
is disposed to attribute it to the develop- 
ment of diseases, such as caused the de- 
terioration of ancient civilizations of 
southern Europe. At the time of the 



bloodshed. In the delineation of the 
human figure proportion was ignored. 
Little attention was paid to anatomical 
details. There is nothing in the dress, 
vesture, or insignia on which to base a 



Spanish conquest, the native cultures of determination of sex, but male figures arc 



the salubrious highlands w T cre flourish- 
ing, while those of the hot, fever-stricken 
lowlands languished or were extinct. 

3. Arranged around the rotunda are 
replicas of the great mono- 
liths of Quirigua. These 
remarkable monuments 
surpass everything else of 
their kind on the Ameri- 
can continent. They arc 
of two classes, namely, 
sculptured shafts, or 
stelae, and huge zoom or- 
pine figures which bear 
the same kind of hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and 
show the same sculp- 
tural features as the 
shafts. Both types ap- 
pear to have had the 
same purpose, which 
doubtless was to serve as 
memorials of great men 




FIG. 10. HIEROGLYPHIC 
SCKIPTIOX, PALENQUE 



always bearded and female beardless. 
In the arrangement of the monuments 
about the Plaza at Quirigua, it is of in- 
terest to note that the north end was 
given over to monuments 
of men, while those south 
of the center are women's 
monuments. Nearly all 
are double-figured and in 
no case do the figures 
duplicate. There can be 
little doubt that these 
are portrait*. 

The story of the mak- 
ing of these reproductions 
is of great interest. The 
building of tracks and 
scafTolds; the transporta- 
tion of vast quantities 
of glue, plaster, and clay; 
the repeated experiments 
ending in many failures, 
but ultimately in per- 



and women who occupied high positions feet success in the use of glue molds 
as priests or rulers. Inscriptions were in the tropics; the handling of heavy 
usually placed upon the narrow sides of masses with scanty mechanical appli- 



the shafts, and the animal designs are 
likewise covered with hieroglyphics and 
decorative elements. In the wealth of 
sculpture at Quirigua there is a noticeable 
absence of war implements and scenes of 



ances; the problems of crating, ] jacking, 
and transporting, and finally setting up 
the monuments in the rotunda of 
the California Building; repairing, point- 
ing, coloring, finally achieving replicas 



combat. This would seem to indicate a correct to a hair line and preserving not 
peaceable race. One notes also the only the art of the monuments but the 
absence of scenes of sacrifice, cruelty, or very texture of the stone — is an im- 



m 




FIG. 11. DATE OF THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING IN MAYA GLYPHS. 



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ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 85 






port-ant chapter in Central American 
archaeology. 

Beginning at the left side of the rotunda 
on entering, we may notice the monu- 
ments in order. The first, called by 
Maudslay the Great Turtle (fig. 13), is 
the crowning achievement of native 
American art. In the beauty of its de- 
sign, the richness of its execution, and 
the breadth of its conception, it is not 
approached by any other American ex- 
ample. The figure seated in the mouth 
of a mythic animal, which probably 
stands for some deific earth power, is 
that of a young woman bearing the 
manikin wand and ceremonial shield, 
and wearing the crown and elaborated 
head dress which characterize the cos- 
tumes of all the sculptured figures at 
Quirigua. The entire surface of the 
block is carved. The principal inscrip- 
tion occupies the back part of the monu- 
ment. The people who executed this prob- 
ably reached the limit of their powers, 
for no later work of the people of Quirigua 
equals it, and a marked change in style 
appears in those of later date. The 
making of this replica of the greatest 
of all Central American sculptures be- 
came possible through the generosity 
of Mr. George W. Marston of San Diego. 

The next monument is a shaft belong- 
ing to the group having low pedestals. 
On the front is a bearded figure, stand- 
ing, with hands resting upon a breast- 
plate or bundle, which extends from 
shoulder to shoulder. Unlike the figures 
on the other monuments, the personage 
here represented does not carry scepter 
and shield, but instead holds the ceremon- 
ial bundle above referred to. On the 
back of the shaft is a grotesque figure 
in low relief, which stands in a peculiar 
position with one knee flexed and, instead 
of being presented full-face, is in profile. 



The figure represents the Death God. 
On the narrow sides of the monument 
are columns of hieroglyphic inscriptions. 
The next monument seen in making 
the round of the rotunda is an enormous 
shaft, the largest at Quirigua, in fact, the 
largest in the whole Maya world. It is 
placed in the center of the apse of the 
cathedral -like interior. It is between 
twenty-six and twenty-seven feet high, 
and the original has an unknown projec- 
tion below the surface. It is approxi- 
mately five feet broad and three and one- 
fourth feet thick. The original leans 
thirteen feet from the perpendicular; con- 
sequently it is usually spoken of as the 
"Leaning Shaft." The writer has been able 
to prove that this monument never occu- 
pied a vertical position, in short, that the 
builders found themselves unable to 
raise it. The weight of the original is 
upward of one hundred thousand pounds. 
The material is red sandstone. The 
block was quarried some five or six miles 
from the temple area and hauled by means 
of ropes pulled by hundreds of individuals 
down the inclined way which leads 
from the quarry to the water. There it 
was probably loaded upon boats, floated 
down the Motagua to a point opposite 
the city, then brought in by means of 
the canals to the sacred precinct when* 
it was erected. The human figures, both 
male, sculptured upon the two broad faces 
are the most imposing to be seen in 
Quirigua. They are of heroic size, and 
have the appearance of great strength. 
Each figure bears a manikin wand in 
the right hand and the tasseled shield 
in the left. The two narrow sides are 
covered from top to bottom with hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions. The necessary 
means for the reproduction of this monu- 
ment were generously furnished by Air. 
Joseph W. Sefton of San Diego. 




FIG. 14, "THE QUEEN." SCULPTURED STELE, QUIRIGUA. 






ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 87 



The next monument, called The Queen, 
is eleven and one-half feet high (fig. 14). 
Upon its opposite faces are sculptured 
female figures in high relief. The faces 
are full and beautifully rounded. The 
figures are very short. The one facing 
the rotunda hears the manikin wand 
and tasseled shield. It was the last 
monument set up at Quirigua, and while 
lacking in the cruder strength of the 
older and larger shafts, and in the rich 
beauty of the Great Turtle, it displays 
a fineness of workmanship not to be 
seen in the earlier groups. 



The last monument in the rotunda 
is one belonging to the zoomorphic 
group (fig. 15). It is carved to repre- 
sent a huge dragon-like monster. From 
the mouth issues a human head with 
bearded face, the head crowned in the 
same manner as those upon the sculp- 
tured shafts. The hands rest upon the 
chest. On the arms and legs of the 
monster, which extend back along the 
sides and around the rear of the figure, 
are inscriptions in the intricate and 
elaborate style known as the full-figure 
hieroglyphic. The monument is gener- 
ally known as The Dragon. 



V 

C. THE BALCONIES: THE VIERRA FRESCOES OF ANCIENT 
CITIES OF AMERICA 



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We may begin a description of the 
works of art upon the balconies sur- 
rounding the rotunda with the east side. 
The object of the entire display in the 
California Building has been to give a 
broad picture of Central American cul- 
ture, omitting everything commonplace 
md showing the great achievements of 
the people in city building, architecture, 
rt, together with their environmental 
conditions, religious ceremonies, indus- 
tries, occupations, and beliefs. This has 
been done without introducing a single 
case of museum specimens. 

First to be noticed are the frescoes, 
extending around the interior of the 
building on three sides. These were 
painted by Mr. Carlos Vierra of the 
School of American Archaeology. They 
show six of the most important ancient 
cities of Central America. They illus- 
trate the typical arrangement of Maya 
cities, together with the different types of 
buildings used in their architecture, all 
of which were probably for religious 



purposes. The so-called temples were 
used for religious observances, and the 
palaces were sanctuaries of the priest- 
hood. With the exception of Quirigua, 
little restoration has been introduced in 
the paintings. They may be accepted 
as a fair representation of the appear- 
ance of these cities as they now lie in 
ruins, and have lain for many centuries. 
Considerable restoration has been done 
in showing the temples at Quirigua. The 
excavation of the city has not proceeded 
nearly so far as is indicated in the paint- 
ing. It will be convenient to describe 
these frescoes in the order of their ar- 
rangement as we pass around the three 
balconies. 

Quirigua (fig. 16) is situated in the 
flood-plain of the Motagua River in the 
Republic of Guatemala. This valley is 
one of incomparable richness of soil. 
The vegetation is indescribably dense. 
The city is devoid of written history 
and tradition is silent concerning it. 
The architectural remains consist of 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 89 



ruined temples upon massive terraces 
of red sandstone, grouped about a Great 
Plaza and two smaller rectangular courts. 
These constituted the Sacred Precinct 
of the city. In architecture Quirigua 
is less imposing than other ruined cities 
I of Central America. In sculptured mon- 
uments it is unequalled. These are ar- 
ranged about the Great Plaza and 
in the Ceremonial Court south of it. 
There are thirteen of the greater monu- 
ments and three of lesser importance. 
Eight examples are installed in the 
California Building. 

The ruins of Quirigua have been un- 
covered by the School of American Ar- 
chaeology, which commenced excavations 
[ there in the spring of 1910. The work 
was made possible by generous contri- 
butions from members of the St. Louis 
Society of the Institute for three years. 
It received also an equal amount of finan- 
cial aid from the United Fruit Company. 
The rest of the expenditure has been 
borne by the school, the exposition, and 
private subscribers. At the beginning 
it was a completely buried city. The 
ruins presented the appearance of earth 
mounds covered with enormous trees 
and dense jungles. Only a part of the 
Sacred Precinct was uncovered. It is 
estimated that five years will be needed 
to complete the work. Excavations will 
be resumed in 1916. The story of the 
I uncovering of Quirigua will stir everyone 
who enjoys a battle with difficulties. 
The mechanical problems involved were 
usual in archaeological research. The 
destruction of a mass of tropical vegeta- 
tion amounting to thousands of tons 
per acre, the removal from the buildings 
I of trees a hundred and fifty feet high 
and twenty-five feet in circumference 
without destroying monuments, stair- 
ways, and walls was an enormous task. 



Great stumps with roots spreading out 
over the mounds and penetrating them 
in every direction added to the difficulty 
of excavation. Two seasons were de- 
voted to this pail of the work alone, 
and happily all was finished without 
injury to a single monument or inscrip- 
tion. 

The ruins of Copan (fig. 17) are situ- 
ated in the Republic of Honduras not far 
from the frontier of Guatemala. It is 
in the valley of the Copan River, a tribu- 
tary of the Motagua, upon the banks of 
which, some thirty miles away, we find 
the ruins of Quirigua, from which it is 
separated by the mountain range which 
forms the boundary between Guatemala 
and Honduras. Copan may be reached 
on horseback in two days from either 
Zacapa or Gualan on the railway which 
extends from Puerto Barrios to Guate- 
mala City. 

Unlike the majority of the Central 
American cities, Copan was situated in 
the hills at an elevation of approximately 
two thousand feet above sea level. The 
distinct is not heavily forested, as is the 
main valley of the Motagua, though 
from early accounts it would appear that 
the city was formerly surrounded by a 
heavy jungle. 

Of Copan there is but little that is 
satisfactory in recorded history. We 
have a description of the ruins in a letter 
of Diego Garcia de Palacia written in 
1576 to King Philip II of Spain. He 
speaks of "ruins and vestiges of a great 
population and of superb edifices of such 
skill and splendor that it appears they 
could never have been built by the natives 
of that province." His description of 
the ruins will still pass as reasonably 
accurate. As to his information gained 
concerning them he states — 




FIG. 16. QUIRIGUA. 




FIG. 17. CO PAN. 




FIG. 18. TIKAL. 

FIG. 16-18. MURAL DECORATIONS. PANORAMIC VIEWS OF ANCIENT MAYA CITIES 

BY CARLOS VIERRA. 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 91 



I endeavored with all possible care to 
ascertain from the Indians, through 
the traditions derived from the ancients, 
what people lived there or what they 
knew or had heard from their ancestors 
concerning them, but they had no books 
relating to their antiquities, nor do I 
believe that in all this district there is 
more than one, which I possess. They say 
that in ancient times there came from 
Yucatan a great lord who built these 
edifices but at the end of some years 
he returned to his native country leav- 
ing them entirely deserted. 

Little of value was recorded concern- 
ing Copan until the year 1839 when Mr. 
John L. Stephens explored Guatemala, 
and with the aid of Catherwood, the art- 
ist, prepared a most interesting and 
valuable account of the ruins. For the 
first really important investigation of 
Copan we are indebted to the English 
explorer, Mr. Maudslay. Next in im- 
portance was the work of the Peabody 
Museum, Harvard University, prose- 
cuted during the years 1891-1895. As 
results of these expeditions we have the 
valuable reports of Mr. Maudslay and 
of the Peabody Museum which afford a 
more satisfactory body of literature con- 
cerning Copan than is to be found of 
any other Maya city. L T nfortunately, 
the excavation of Copan was prema- 
turely terminated, so that this great city 
has only partially told its story. A fact 
that should not be forgotten is that the 
Copan River is rapidly cutting into the 
temple area, causing serious destruction 
each year. Furthermore, great loss is 
occasioned by the vandalism of the native 
population. L T nless these two causes of 
destruction can be speedily arrested, the 
loss at Copan will be irreparable. 

Tikal is one of the largest of the ancient 
cities of the Maya people (fig. 18). Its 
ruins occupy an area of approximately a 
square mile. It covers three natural 



terraced hills, and like most other Maya 
cities, was composed mainly of temples 
built upon pyramidal bases. The walls 
of the temples are of enormous thickness in 
proportion to the room space as at Quiri- 
gua. The situation of Tikal is in the 
interior of Guatemala in the Department 
of Peten. Because of its extreme isola- 
tion the city has been seen by but few 
travelers. There is little authentic his- 
tory of the place. Mention is made of 
its having been explored in 1848, and 
various other reports have been pub- 
lished during the latter part of the last 
century. The best known and the most 
satisfactory are those of Mr. Alfred 
Maudslay and Mr. Teobert Maler. Dur- 
ing the last few years the ruins of Tikal 
have been under investigation by the 
Peabody Museum, Harvard University. 
An important development of the culture 
was the remarkable wood carvings that 
have been rescued from the temples. 
From nowhere else in Central America, 
and from but few places in the world, 
do we have such beautiful examples of 
ancient wood sculpture. 

Palenque (fig. 19) is situated in the 
state of Chiapas, Mexico, bordering on 
the Republic of Guatemala. It is in 
the heavily wooded hills to the west of 
the Usumacinta River. The original 
meaning of the name Palenque is not 
certainly known, nor is anything definite 
known as to its history. In his expedi- 
tion to Honduras in 1542-1546, Cortes 
must have passed within a short distance 
of the place. As no mention is made of 
it in the account of that expedition, it 
would seem certain that the city must 
have been completely in ruins and buried 
in the tropical jungle at that time. 

There are dim traditions concerning 
the origin of Palenque, but these have 
little historic value. Like Tikal and 



92 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the southern cities, Copan and Quirigua, 
it flourished during the Ninth Cycle of 
the Maya Calendar which, as quite gen- 
erally held by American students, would 
correspond to the early centuries of the 
Christian era. 

Juarros, the historian of Guatemala, 
states that the ruins of Palcnque were 
discovered about 1750. Erasscur de 
Bourbourg gives 1746 as the date. The 
first explorations of the ruins which led 
to important results were those of Cap- 
tain Antonio del Rio in 1787. Among the 
most important explorations and ac- 
counts of this ancient capital are those 
of Du Paix, Waldeck, Stephens, Charnay, 
Maudslay, and Holmes. 

Chichen Itza (fig. 20) was one of the 
largest and most important of the an- 
cient Yucatecan cities. Its ruined build- 
ings cover an area of, at least, a mile 
square, and minor structures are to be 
found in every direction for a distance of 
several miles. It belongs to a later time 
than Palenque and Quirigua, and appears 
to have been contemporaneous with 
Uxmal and Maxapan. The ruins are 
in the northeastern part of the Peninsula 
of Yucatan, about one hundred miles 
from Merida, the capital. The ancient 
city takes its name from a tribe, the 
Itzas, which is supposed to have founded 
it, and from two natural reservoirs, 
called cenotes, around which the city was 
built. Numerous evidences of Aztec 
culture are to be seen at Chichen Itza. 
In fact, it is by some authorities held to 
have been an Aztec rather than a Maya 
city. While the investigations of Chich- 
en are insufficient to establish beyond 
question any important facts as to its 
history, students have reached the con- 
clusion that it had its origin as a settle- 
ment of Maya people in the early cen- 
turies of the Christian era, and that 



after its first period of development it 
underwent a change of occupancy, pass- 
ing into the hands of the conquering 
Aztecs from the Mexican plateau. 

Important buildings in Chichen, all of 
which are to be seen in Mr. Vierra's 
paintings, are the Pyramid of Sacrifice, 
Place of a Thousand Columns, Ball 
Court, Temple of the Tigers, Temple of 
the High Priest's Grave, Casa Colorada, 
Temple of Acatzib, and the Monjas. 

The city of Uxmal (fig. 21) must have 
ranked in importance with Chichen 
Itza, and in some respects was more 
magnificent than that great ' religious 
center. It is in northern Yucatan, about 
fifty miles west of the capital, Merida. 
It is reached partly by rail and partly 
by horse trail without great difficulty. 
It contains probably the finest examples 
of Central American architecture of the 
later period, and like Chichen Itza has 
noteworthy Aztec features. Architec- 
tural sculpture here reached its highest 
development, the upper zone of the 
temples and palaces being loaded with 
ornament in the form of stone lattice- 
work and beautiful tracery. Facades of 
vast extent are lavishly decorated with 
conventionalized motives. The pyra- 
mids resemble the one at Chichen Itza 
in style and magnitude. As compared 
with the southern cities, Quirigua and 
Copan, and with Palenque, the represent- 
ative city of the western Maya area, 
Uxmal and Chichen Itza are poor in 
hieroglyphic inscriptions. Nowhere, how- 
ever, has more beautiful sculpture in 
the round been found than at Uxmal. 
It is less known than any of the other 
cities named. No excavations of any 
importance have been carried on there, 
due largely to the deadly fevers for which 
the place is celebrated. 





FIG. 19. PALENQUE. 




FU.; ?Q. CHICHEN ETZA. 




FIG. 21. UXMAL. 
FrGS. 19-21. MUHAL DECORATIONS. PANORAMIC VIEWS OF ANCIENT MAYA CITIES 

BY CARLOS VIERRA. 




FIG. 22. THE QUARRYMEN. 




FIG, 23. THE SCVLP j 




FIG. 24. THE BUILDERS. 

FIG. 22-24. PANELS FROM SCULPTURED FRIEZE B ^ MRS. JEAN BEMVN SMITH 
PORTRAYING SCENES FROM MAYA LIFE. 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 95 



VI 
SCULPTURED FRIEZE OF ANCIENT AMERICAN LIFE 



Returning to the east balcony, we may 
next notice the sculptured frieze which is 
placed above the frescoes just described, 
and which likewise extends around the 
interior of the building on three sides. 
This frieze is the work of Mrs. Jean 
Beman Smith, and is worthy of a more 
extended description than can here be 
given. It is a continuous band of sculp- 
ture in low relief. The entire length is 
150 feet. The panels arc each 9 feet 
long by 3J feet wide and are set in the 
wall at a height of 11 feet from the floor. 
The highest relief in the molding is about 
2 inches. By coincidence the breadth 
of the frieze and the height of the relief 
correspond to those of the Parthenon 
frieze. The number of figures is about 
150. There is no repetition, and all of 
the ornament, dress, and architectural 
design are purely Maya. The charac- 
ter and style of the work is also largely 
that of the ancient artists. 

We may begin with the panel at the 
north end of the east gallery, and as with 
the frescoes, follow around the interior 
from left to right. The first panel (fig. 
23), entitled The Sculptors, shows a 
scene of ancient activity, such as might 
have attended the building of Copan or 
Quirigua, namely, that of decorating 
one of the huge monoliths to be set up 
in the Plaza. The second, The Builders, 
(fig. 24), represents the construction 
of a temple under the direction of a 
priestly figure. Here may be seen the 
stone cutters, naked save for their 
square aprons, wielding their stone ham- 
mers, chisels, and other implements. 
Other toilers with carrying bands around 
their foreheads and over their shoulders 
are bringing the finished blocks to the 



builders of the wall. In the third panel 
is shown the serpent dance, compar- 
able in arrangement and action to 
what may be witnessed every summer 
among the Hopi Indians of our South- 
west. It is noticeable that the serpent 
and bird symbolism of the Cliff Dwellers 
are here developed into the gorgeous 
feathered serpent designs of the Maya 
columns and altar-pieces. 

In the fourth panel is seen the trans- 
portation of a huge monolith through 
the tropical forest to the river where, 
after being loaded upon boats and 
transported to the city, the sculp- 
tors will decorate it and a multitude of 
workmen will erect it in the Plaza. The 
last panel on this side (fig. 22) shows 
The Quarrymen at work removing a block 
that has been detached from a ledge 
preparatory to hauling it, upon rollers, 
down the inclined highway to the river. 

On the south gallery the first panel 
shows the entrance to a temple of 
Copan. About the doorway is an 
elaborate mosaic with symbolic serpents 
intertwined. The priest and assistants 
officiate before an altar in the back- 
ground from which rise the sacred fires. 
In the foreground the altar receives the 
offerings of the people. A priestess, in 
rich costume, with netted skirt and cere- 
monial headdress, officiates, as musicians 
pass about the altar in procession. The 
theme of this panel, namely, a Ceremony 
of Dedication, is beautifully developed 
in the luxury and splendor of decoration, 
elaborately carved figures and hiero- 
glyphics, and the activities of the partici- 
pants. 

The companion panel to the right 
(fig. 25) represents a Ceremony of 



96 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Divination. It shows priests and people 
in ceremonial grouping before a monu- 
ment which has just been erected. In- 
cense issues from the sacred pipe and 
floats to the six directions. In the 
great portal is a priestess in flowing 
headdress. 

Passing to the west gallery we see the 
most dramatic theme that Mrs. Smith 
has chosen for her expression of Maya 
activities. It is the Sacrifice of the 
Virgins. It is developed in three panels 
entitled The Procession (fig. 26) , the 
Sacrifice, and the Return of the Oracle 
(fig. 27). The tradition on which 
it is based is set forth in the ancient 
chronicles. It was a propitiatory 
sacrifice of virgins to the rain gods 
in time of drought. The maidens pre- 
pared for the sacrifice are seen in the 
first panel proceeding along the paved 
causeway to the altar upon the brink 
of the Cenote of Sacrifice. From here 
at daybreak occurred the plunge into 
the water of the Holy Well, from 70 to 
100 feet below. If, perchance, a maiden 
survived this plunge, ^he might be res- 
cued at midday, after which the artist 
conceives her to have been accepted as 
an oracle. In the third panel is seen 
the Return of the Oracle, her approach 
to the altar in the form of a cross, upon 
the top of which, as in the Cross of 
Palenque, is seen the sacred Quetzal, 
and before which is seated the lord of 
the city upon his tiger-headed throne. 
The story of this sacrifice is quaintly 
told in a letter written by three of the 
original conquistadores of Yucatan in 
response to a . circular sent out by the 



Council of the Indies in 1579 asking for 
information about the discovery and 
conquest of the country and the native 
inhabitants. 

The next two panels depict the cere- 
monial ball game known to the Aztecs 
as tlachtli. It was described by Herrera 
as one of the diversions of Montezuma 
and his court, but doubtless was little 
understood by those early observers. 
The presence of the ball court at Chichen 
Itza and Uxmal is an evidence of a strong 
development of Aztec culture in northern 
Yucatan. 

The first panel represents the assem- 
blage of the spectators upon the 
great walls of the ball court. An Indian 
maiden bears the ball, which, according 
to the account of the chronicler, was 
"made of the gum of a tree that grows 
in hot countries, which having holes 
made in it distils great white drops which 
soon harden and being worked and 
moulded together turn as black as pitch." 
The second panel shows the game in 
progress. The ball was struck with 
any part of the body and some- 
times it was necessary that it should re- 
bound from the hip upon which was 
fastened a piece of stiff leather. The 
successful players were rewarded with 
loads of mantles and sometimes with 
gold and feather-work. The ball had 
to be cast through a hole in a great 
round stone fixed upon the wall of the 
court at a considerable height from the 
floor. Whoever succeeded in this re- 
markable feat, which rarely happened, 
was entitled to the mantles of all the 
spectators. 




FIG. 25. CEREMONY OF DIVINATION. 




FIG. 26. SACRIFICIAL PROCESSION OF THE VIRGINS. 








FIG. 27. RETURN OF THE ORACLE. 

FIGS. 25-27. PANELS FROM SCULPTURED FRIEZE BY MRS. JEAN BEMAN SMITH, 
PORTRAYING SCENES FROM MAYA LIFE. 



98 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



VII 
OTHER REPLICAS AND RECONSTRUCTIONS 

Upon the balconies are replicas of north is well preserved, and is one of 

some other monuments of Quirigua. the strongest examples at Quirigua. The 

The one standing upon the south bal- monument is at the north end of the 

cony belongs to an early period of Maya Plaza. Both figures are bearded. The 

sculpture. The monument is double- one on the north side holds a scepter in 

figured, the one on the south side being the left hand and the right bears a tas- 

badly defaced, evidently by the fall- seled shield. On the narrow sides are 

ing of a tree which has shaved off the hieroglyphic inscriptions in the best 

principal features. The figure on the style of glyph carving that has been found. 




FIG. 28 ALTAR-PIECE OF ZAPOTE WOOD. TIKAL. 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 99 



On the west wall of the south balcony 
is in some ways the most remarkable 
specimen of Maya art that has been 
chosen to illustrate the aesthetic achieve- 
ments of these extraordinary people. 
It is a replica of a famous wood carving 
(fig. 28) , an altar panel of zapote wood, 
sculptured in low relief, from the Tem- 
ple of the Sun at Tikal, Department of 
Peten, Guatemala. The design is excep- 
tionally elaborate and in execution is not 
excelled by any similar work in America. 
The subject is a richly costumed per- 
sonage, holding a standard or baton in 
his right hand, his face framed in the 
open mouth of a grotesque monster. He 
is enclosed beneath the arched body of 
a feathered serpent of extraordinary 
design, the head appearing at the left. 
Perched on the serpent arch above is the 
figure of a mythical bird-monster, prob- 
ably representing some important deity 
of the Maya pantheon. Hieroglyphic 
inscriptions occur at several points. 
Note especially the two exquisite por- 
trait faces in the lower right-hand part. 
The original of this specimen is now 
preserved in the Museum at Basel, 
Switzerland. 

The examples taken to show the great- 
est achievements of the Central American 
people in architecture are placed upon 
the east and west balconies. The first to 
be described is the one on the east side. 
It is called El Castillo (fig. 29), or as the 
writer prefers to name it, the Temple 
of Sacrifice. The structure is in the 
main well preserved, minor restorations 
being required at several points, but not 
involving the introduction of any feature 
not reasonably well verified. The pyra- 
mid is approximately 190 by 230 feet at 
the base, 80 feet in height, and about 60 
feet square at the summit. In design 
and execution this structure is of excep- 



tionally high order, indicating great prog- 
ress in architecture. It has four grand 
stairways, each about 30 feet in width 
and bordered by balustrades, those on 
the north side (front) terminating at 
the base in two great serpent heads about 
10 feet in length, each carved from a 
single block of limestone. The pyra- 
mid is built of coarse rubble, cemented 
and faced with blocks of hewn limestone, 
neatly dressed and tastefully panelled. 

The temple which surmounts the pyra- 
mid is about 44 by 48 feet at the base 
and 24 feet in height. It is well pre- 
served save that a portion of the facade 
has fallen as the result of the decay of 
the wooden lintels which spanned the 
wide doorway. The walls and roofs 
are four feet or more in thickness, and 
the stones of the facing were so well cut 
and fitted as to require little mortar. 

As usual in Yucatan buildings, the 
exterior walls of the lower story are quite 
plain and are separated by a heavy 
molding from the upper story which is 
ornamented with panels and surmounted 
by a cornice. In this case the cornice 
was, according to Maudslay, crowned 
by a coping of open fretwork of excep- 
tional beauty. The lower story is pierced 
by four doorways, that on the north 
wing being 21 feet wide and 8 feet 6 inches 
high, divided by two great stone columns. 
These support the wooden lintels and 
are carved to represent the feathered 
serpent divinity of Yucatan mythology. 
Passing into the outer chamber or vesti- 
bule between these columns and through 
a second doorway, the visitor enters a 
large chamber spanned by two high 
pointed arches, the separating walls 
being replaced by two square sculptured 
columns. This chamber was doubtless 
a sanctuary and served some important 
purpose in the religious rites of the people. 



100 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



The model was built under the direction 
of Wra. H. Holmes of the U. S. National 
Museum. 

The final example of architecture 
presented and the one which may be said 
to represent the last word in the build- 
ing art in Ancient America has been 
placed on the west balcony (fig. 30). 
The great building here shown is called 



debris. The upper terrace, shown in 
the model, is 20 feet in height, and is as- 
cended by a stairway of 30 steps, 120 feet 
long. The main terrace is about 20 feet 
in height, and is so extensive, covering 
several acres, that it could not be shown 
in the model. The foundation platform 
is only a few feet in height. The build- 
ing proper is a massive rectangular 




Reconstruction by W. H. Holmes. 
FIG. 29 THE TEMPLE OF SACRIFICE, CIT1CHEN ITZA. 



"The Palace" or "House of the Gov- 
ernor/' and is one of the chief structures 
in the ruined city of Uxmal. The age 
of the city is not know T n,but the building 
is still well preserved, and but little restor- 
ation was necessary in completing the 
model. It is built of hewn limestone 
and is 320 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 28 
feet high. It rests on a triple terraced 
pyramid, now almost wholly buried in 



structure with vertical walls, perforated 
by eleven rectangular doorways on the 
front, and a doorway at each end. It is 
pierced also by two pointed archways, 
24 feet in height, passing entirely through 
the building. These arches are walled 
up and divided into chambers. In the 
model one is closed and the other is left 
open to show the construction. The 
building is exceedingly massive, about 



ANCIENT AMERICA AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION 101 



one-half of the entire bulk being solid 
masonry. The walls, faced with cut stone 
and with rubble filling, arc from three to 
five feet thick, excepting the back wall 
which is nine feet thick. There are no 
windows or roof openings, and the back 
rooms are necessarily very dark. The 
chambers are spanned by high pointed 
arches faced with hewn stone, the in- 
sloping ceiling wall being connected by 



elaborately costumed human figures, 
grotesque masks, and geometric fretwork, 
the whole including not fewer than ten 
thousand hewn stones, separately carved 
and laid in mortar against the concrete 
filling of the wall, forming a great mosaic. 
The use to which the building was 
devoted is not known. Since it appears 
to have been in many respects the most 
prominent structure in the city, it was 




Reconstruction by W. H. Holmes. 



FIG. 30 THE PALACE, UXMAL. 



flat capstones. The lower half of the 
wall, fourteen feet in height, is plain and 
contains the doorways, nine feet high, 
which were spanned originally by wooden 
lintels now entirely rotted away. The 
upper wall-zone, fourteen feet in height, 
is separated from the lower by a heavy 
molding and surmounted by a wide cor- 
nice. The intervening space is richly 
decorated with sculptures consisting of 



probably occupied by dignitaries of the 
priestly establishment. The model was 
constructed under the supervision of 
Mr. \\m. H. Holmes. 

The work prepared to finish the pic- 
ture of Ancient America presented in the 
California Building is a rectangular 
panel by Mrs. Smith, finished but not 
yet cast and set in place. It is called 
The Spirit of the Past (fig. 31). This 



102 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



panel is of great size, requiring the entire 
space of twelve feet square below the 
large cathedral window. The theme is 
developed by means of a shrouded, 
brooding figure, looking out across the 
ruins of contemporary civilizations — 
the Maya, Greek, Egyptian — the spirit 
that has witnessed the growth, decline, 
and death of the great nations of the 
world, that has been cognizant of all 
the forces that have shaped human 



events, and that the artist conceives as 
eternally brooding over the affairs of 
man, from nation to nation and from age 
to age through all the cycles of time. 
The inscription for this panel, from the 
writings of Charles Kingsley, is an ap- 
propriate thought to place at the end 
of the archaeological exhibit : 

So fleet the works of men back to their 

earth again, 
Ancient and holy things fade like a dream. 




&U Un. Jcon Berman Smith, 
FIG. 31 "THE SPIRIT OF THE PAST"— SCULPTURED PANEL. 



CURRENT NOTES AND NEWS 



Primitive Arts and Industries 



In the preparation of the exhibits at 
the Panama-California Exposition relat- 
ing to the culture history of the native 
American race, and the division devoted 
to Ancient America, Director Hewett 
was in personal charge throughout. 
The foundation for the culture history 
exhibit was laid by the preparation, 
under the personal supervision of Mr. 
W. H. Holmes, of a series of groups 
illustrating, by means of lay-figures, such 
important steps in the beginning of native 
American culture as the manufacture 
of stone implements, the working of 
ancient soapstone quarries of Catalina 
Island (fig. 1), the prehistoric obsidian 
workers of California, the beginnings of 
sculpture among the ancient Mexicans, 
primitive copper mining on Isle Roy- 



ale, Lake Superior, and prehistoric iron 
mining in the state of Missouri. This 
valuable exhibit was further extended to 
embrace collections representing the evo- 
lution of the stone art from its simplest 
forms to the highest achievements of the 
shaping of stone and the manipulations 
of metal. 

A series of village group models, 
illustrating houses and house life in 
the most important culture areas from 
Greenland and Alaska to Patagonia were 
prepared under the direction of Dr. 
Walter Hough of the U. S. National 
Museum. Like the series just described 
representing the evolution of art in stone, 
this has proven to be of exceptional 
educational value. 



Reproductions of ihe House Life of American Indians 



Field work extending over a period 
of three years carried on by Mr. John P. 
Harrington of the School of American 
Archaeology has resulted in the prep- 
aration and installation in the Indian 
Arts Building of important exhibits 
reproducing the houses and house life 



of the Mohave Indians of the Colorado 
basin and of the coast and island peoples 
of California. These reproductions are 
accurate in every detail and invaluable 
in preserving phases of native material 
culture which must in their normal 
habitat soon completely disappear. 



The Painted Desert 



Through the munificent generosity of 
the Santa Fe Railway Company, it 
became feasible to construct a full sized 
replica of a typical Indian pueblo (fig. 5), 
and to fill it with representatives of liv- 
ing tribes, the Pueblo, Navaho, Apache, 
and Havasupai, engaged in their custo- 
mary occupations. This exhibit has 
proved to be one of the most attractive 
and important features of the Exposition, 



and is credited to the genius of Mr. 
Jesse L. Nusbaum, of the School of 
American Archaeology. The extent of 
the work, the accuracy of the reproduc- 
tion of the rocky site and the complete- 
ness of every detail of arrangement and 
construction places this exhibit on a 
plane of achievement far above any- 
thing of the kind ever undertaken. It 
is indeed a masterpiece. 

103 



104 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Exhibit of the State of New Mexico 

New Mexico stands foremost among ethnology of New Mexico. The building 

the states of the Union in recognizing (fig. 6) j n the archaic mission style of the 

the value of its antiquities and making Rio Grande Pueblos, antedating the 

them an asset in the welfare and develop- oldest California missions by a century 

ment of the state. The extensive col- md a half ig Qne of the most effect i ve 

lections brought together in the state in ^ Exposition dty . A replica of 



this structure will be erected in Santa 



building comprise archaeological and 
ethnological models prepared by Mr. 
Percy Adams of the School of American F6 at . a cost of slxt y t h ° usand dollars 



Archaeology at Santa Fe, besides ex- 
tensive series of specimens, photographs, 



on a site donated by the people of that 
city, contiguous to the ancient Palace 



transparencies, and many other exhibits of the Governors, as an addition to the 
illustrating the history, archaeology and Museum of American Archaeology. 

Physical Anthropology 



The highly elaborated exhibit illustrat- 
ing the physical history and relative 
status of the races of man occupies, 
with the laboratory pertaining to it, 
five rooms in the Science and Education 
Building. It was prepared and installed 
by Dr. Ales Hrdligka of the United 
States National Museum, who, with the 
sanction of the Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, undertook the ardu- 



ous task of collecting the material from 
many sources near and remote. After 
close observation of the attention paid 
to this exhibit by the general public and 
by scholarly visitors from many coun- 
tries, the Director of Exhibits expresses 
the view that among existing exhibits 
within this important field of research it 
is without a rival and constitutes a dis- 
tinct and eminent achievement in science. 



A Permanent Museum at San Diego 

There has been formed recently by disposal of the Museum by the City 

leading citizens of San Diego a Museum Park Board, and that the Exposition 

Association, which has for its object stockholders may turn over the valuable 

the development and maintenance of a permanent collections to the Museum, 

public museum for the city. After the as contemplated in the original plans 

close of the Exposition it is hoped that agreed upon by the officers of the Exposi- 

adequate buildings will be placed at the tion and the Institute. 

The International Congress of Americanists 

The meeting of the International hold a joint session with the Americanists 

Congress of Americanists will be held in on Friday, December 31. Delegates 

Washington, D. C, December 27-31, who expect to attend the Congress will 

1915, in conjunction with the Second kindly communicate with the Secretary, 

Pan-American Scientific Congress. The Dr. Ales Hrdligka, U. S. National 

Archaeological Institute of America will Museum, Washington, D. C. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Has completed its first volume and has already won for itself an enviable place in the magazine 
world. Started by the Archaeological Institute primarily for its lay members, it has already 
gained a considerable circle of admiring and appreciative readers in the entire field of art and 
letters. 

The purpose of ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY is to give people, in an interesting and at- 
tractive way, accurate information, pleasingly presented, in the wide realm embraced by its 
name. This information is imparted by valuable reading matter, illustrated by beautiful pictures 
reproduced in half-tone, photogravure or color work. 

The wide range of its activities is shown by the fact that during the first year ART AND 
ARCHAEOLOGY brought to its readers one four-color frontispiece and 184 beautiful and unique 
pictures reproduced in half-tone to illustrate 32 articles and 34 important items in Current Notes 
and News. The reader has visited excavations in Egypt, Crete, and Palestine, and the diggings 
of the Kaiser in Corfu; has been with Demosthenes on the Pnyx at Athens; has surveyed the 
beautiful site of the American Academy in Rome; has made a journey to Horace's Sabine Farm, 
and Pliny's Villa "Comedy" on Lake Como; has become acquainted with Byzantine and Moorish 
Art in Constantinople and Spain; has beheld the Rheims Cathedral and various wonder works 
of art in Florence; has surveyed the richness of Aboriginal American Art as produced long centuries 
ago, before the advent of the European; and has observed our latest artistic development in such 
modern Masterpieces of Classical Art as are to be found in Washington, Chicago, Richmond and 
other cities. 

Yet the forthcoming numbers of the magazine will surpass any that have gone before. 
Professor Holmes will continue his series of "Masterpieces of Aboriginal American Art" with 
abundant illustrations. Dan Fellows Piatt will present "Lesser Known Masterpieces of Italian 
Painting," and the "Modern Masterpieces of Classical Architecture" will appear from month 
to month with a companion series in the field of sculpture. Garrett Chatfield Pier will acquaint 
us with interesting monuments of Chinese and Japanese Art. Edgar James Banks will discuss, 
with illustrations, the "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World," and single articles with attractive 
pictures too numerous to mention, are already arranged for. 

What we have gained in excellence and in circulation has been due to the cooperation of 
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American Journal of Archaeology 

Second Series 

The Journal of the Archaeological Institute of America 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

Editor-in-Chief. — Professor Harold X. Fowler, of Western Reserve University. 

Associate Editors.— Professor George H. Chase, of Harvard University (for the American School of Classical Studies at 
Athens); Rev. Dr. John Peters, of New York (for the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem); Profes- 
sor Allan Marquaxd, of Princeton University (for Mediaeval a?id Renaissance Archaeology): Mr. Alfred V. 
Kidder, of Harvard University (for American Archaeology); and Professor William M. Bates, of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

Honoraby Editors.— Professor F. \V. Shipley, of Washington University (President of the Institute); Professor J. R. 
Wheeler, of Columbia University (Chairman of the Managing Committeee of the School at Athens); and Professor 
Charles C. Torrey, of Yale University (Chairman of the Managing Committee of the School in Jerusalem). 



The Journal of the Archaeological Institute of America was established in 
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Charles Upson Clark 
Arthur S Cooley 
Herbert Richard Cross 
Charles Warren Currier 
Adelaide Curtiss 
Walter Dennison 
Martin L. D'Ooge 
James C. Egbert 
George W. Elderlcin 
Arthur Fairbanks 
Clarence S. Fisher 
Thomas Fitz-Hugh 
Alice C. Fletcher 
W. Sherwood Fox 



S. Richard Fuller 
W. H. Goodyear 
Herbert H. Gowen 
J E. Granrud 
Edith H. Hall 
Karl P. Harrington 
W F. Harm 
Elizabeth H. Haight 
Edgar L. Hewett 
Charles Hill Tout 
Ales Hrdlicka 
Frank Edward Johnson 
Francis W. Keliey 
Sidney Fiske Kimball 
Charles Knapp 
Alfred L. Kroeber 
Gordon Jennings Laing 
Charles F. Luinmis 
A. M. Lythgoe 
George Grant MacCurdy 
Walton Brooks McDaniel 
Sylvanus G. Morley 



W. J. Moulton 

Max Miiller 
Richard Norton 
Phila Calder Nye 
Lewis B. Paton 
Garrett Chatfield Pier 
Dan Fellows Piatt 
Arthur Kingsley Porter 
Edward Kennard Rand 
George L. Robinson 
Henry A- Sanders 
Nathaniel Schmidt 
Paul Shorey 
Mn. Arthur Strong 
Frank B. Tarbell 
Herbert Cushing Tolman 
Esther B. Van Deman 
Alice Walton 
Langdon Warner 
James R. Wheeler 
William C. Winslcw 



THE COMMITTEE OF GUARANTORS, authorized by the Council at the Washington Meeting, 
consisting of members who hare pledged the sum of fifty dollars per annum, mostly for three years, 
or such part thereof as may be necessary to insure the financial stability of the project, is steadily 
increasing in number and efforts will not cease until every Society is represented in the list. We have 
already enrolled the following: 



Society. 

NEW YORK: 

WASHINGTON: 

PENNSYLVANIA: 

CHICAGO: 

ST. LOUIS: 

BOSTON: 

SYRACUSE: 

DENVER: 

VANCOUVER: 

BALTIMORE: 

BUFFALO: 

TORONTO: 

MONTREAL: 

LOS ANGELES: 

WINNIPEG: 

CONNECTICUT: 

HAMILTON: 

MINNESOTA: 

RICHMOND: 

CLEVELAND: 



Guarantors. 

Sam P. Avery, Gerard Beekman, W. T. Bush. I. W. Drummond (2). Percy 

Jackson, James Loeb, Seth Low, Eugene Meyer, Jr., Samuel L. Parrish. Dan 

Fellows Piatt, Henry Preble, Edward Robinson. Mortimer L. Schiff, William 

Sloane. 

Charles Henry Butler, Aldis B. Browne (dec'd), W. A. Clark (2). Mrs. H. F. 

Dimock, Joseph Clark Hoppin, George Horton, J. S. Lemon, Franklin Mac- 

Veagh, W. E. Montgomery, J. Townsend Russell, Miss Elizabeth M. Sharpe, 

Miss Mary A. Sharpe (2), C. A. Spalding, Robert M. Thompson. 

William L. Austin. William P. Bancroft, Miss Agnes Browne, Eckley B. Coxe. 

Jr., Francis A. Cunningham, Charles C. Harrison, Harold Peirce, J. G. 

Rosengarten. 

Edward E. Ayer, C. L. Hutchinson, Bryan Lathrop, Frank G. Logan, Mrs. 

Garrett Chatfield Pier, Martin A. Ryerson, Byron L. Smith (dec'd), A. A. 

Sprague, 2d. Mrs. H. M. Wilmarth. 

W. K- Bixby, Robert S. Brookiugs, Hugo Koehler, E. G. Lewis, George S. 

Mepham, J. M. Wulfing. 

Miss Mary H. Buckingham, Mrs. C. W. Hubbard, Miss Louise Kennedy, 

George V. Leverett, Eritie.«t Jackson, (dec'd). 

Edgar A. Emens, Salem Hyde. Mrs. Melville A. Johnson, Mrs. E. B. Judson 

L. M. Cuthbert. E. B. Hendrie. Joel F. Vaile, F. L. Woodward. 

Charles Hill-Tout (4). 

W. H. Buckler, W. K. Naulty, Miss Nellie C. Williams, 

Mrs. J. J. Albright, John D. Larkin, Mrs. Ansley Wilcox. 

C. T. Currelly, Sir Edmund Osier, Mrs. H. D. Warren. 

J. B. Learmont (dec'd), Sir William Peterson. 

Norman Bridge, Frank Springer. 

Sir James Aikins, George Bryce, J. H. Munson. 

Simeon E. Baldwin. 

W. A Child. PUEBLO: R. W. Corwin. 

Charles P. Noyes. DETROIT: Charles L. Freer. 

John Skelton Williams. IOWA: Edward K. Putnam. 

H. P. Eells. NEW JERSEY: Allan Marquand. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

OFFICERS 1915 

PRESIDENT 

F. W. SHIPLEY 
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

SETH LOW. JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE FRANCIS W. KELSEY, 

New York, N. Y. Cambridge. Maw. Ann Arbor, Mich. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

ALLISON V. ARMOUR. New York. SIR WILLIAM PETERSON. McGill University. 
C. T. CURRELLY, Royal Ontario Muteum. {K*-ofu\o as Prtaldant o! tba Dapartmant of Canada) 

WILLIAM F. HARRIS. Cambridge, Man. D. M. ROBINSON. Johns Hopkins University. 

MAURICE HUTTON. University of Toronto. ANDREW F. WEST. Princeton University. 

GORDON J. LA1NG. University of Chicago. BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER. University of 
ALLAN MARQUAND. Princeton University, California. 

GENERAL SECRETARY TREASURER 

MITCHELL CARROLL. Office of the Archaeo- WILLARD V. KING. 60 Broadway, New 
logical Institute of America. Washington, D. C. York, N. Y. 

SECRETARIES 

A. JUDSON EATON, Knowlton. Quebec. H. R. FAIRCLOUGH, Stanford University. 

(Daportmant of Canada) (Waitarn Stataa) 

RECORDER 

RALPH VAN DEMAN MAGOFFIN. Johns Hopkins University. 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, Western Reserve University. 

CHAIRMEN OF MANAGING COMMITTEES 
American School at Athens, American School In Jerusalem. 

JAMES R. WHEELER. Columbia University. CHARLES C. TORREY, Yale University 

School of American Archaeology, Mediaeval and Renaissance Studiee, 

WILLIAM HENRY HOLMES. ALLAN MARQUAND, 

Smithsonian Institution. Princeton University. 

THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES 

HE INSTITUTE is composed of 43 Affiliated Societies, with a membership of more than 3,000. 
located in leading cities throughout the United States and Canada. These Societies hold regular 
meetings for lectures and other purposes. 
The Affiliated Societies are, for the sake of convenience, grouped as follows: 

In the Eastern States: The Boston, New York, Baltimore, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Washington. 
Pittsburgh. Rochester, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Buffalo, Hartford and Syracuse Societies. 

In the Central States: The Chicago, Detroit. Wisconsin. Cleveland, Iowa, Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
Kansas City, Minneapolis, St. Paul and Indiana Societies. 

In the Western States: The Los Angeles, Denver, Colorado Springs, San Francisco, Washington 
State, Portland and San Diego Societies. 

In the Southern States: The Richmond and Nashville Societies. 

In the Department of Canada: The Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Winnipeg, Halifax, St. John, Quebec, 
Vancouver, Calgary and Hamilton Societies. 

The annual dues of members are ten dollars ($10-00) payable in advance. The Life Membership Fee 
is one hundred dollars ($100 00). Any person contributing not less than $500.00 to the endowment or to 
any of the undertakings of the Institute is classed as Patron by vote of the Council, and has all the privileges 
of Life Membership. 

Members enjoy the privileges of lectures and publications, and of participating in the maintenance of 
fellowships and of the unendowed schools, and in the extension of the work of the Institute. 

For further information kindly apply to the Secretary of the local Affiliated Society, or to 

THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 
Office of the Archaeological Institute of America 
The Octagon, Washington, D. C. 



T